Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication following colon and rectal surgery, with reported incidence ranging from 10 to 30%. It can lead to increased morbidity, cost, and length of stay. Although definitions vary considerably in the literature, in its pathologic form, it can be characterized by a temporary inhibition of gastrointestinal motility after surgical intervention due to nonmechanical causes that prevents sufficient oral intake. Various risk factors for development of POI have been identified including increasing age, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores 3 to 4, open approach, operative difficulty, operative duration more than 3 hours, bowel handling, drop in hematocrit or need for a transfusion, increasing crystalloid administration, and delayed mobilization. While treatment is expectant and supportive, significant investigations into strategies to mitigate development of POI or shorten its duration have been undertaken with mixed results. There is significant evidence to suggest that a minimally invasive approach and multimodal pain regimens reduce the development of POI. The beneficial effect of chewing gum, alvimopan, and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols may decrease development of POI in selected groups of patients who undergo elective colorectal surgery, and shorten time to return of bowel function, but overall, the data remain inconclusive.
Pain control is an integral part of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) protocols for colorectal surgery. While opioid therapy remains the mainstay of therapy for postsurgical pain, opioids have undesired side effects including delayed recovery of bowel function, respiratory depression, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. A variety of nonopioid systemic medical therapies as well as regional and neuraxial techniques have been described as improving pain control while reducing opioid use. Multimodal and preemptive analgesia as part of an ERAS protocol facilitates early mobility and early return of bowel function and decreases postoperative morbidity. In this review, we examine several multimodal therapies and their impact on postoperative analgesia, opioid use, and recovery for patients undergoing colorectal surgery.
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Issues per year : 6 Volume : 33 Year : 2020 ISSN : 1531-0043
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery为综述类期刊，出版有关小肠、结肠、直肠和肛门疾病的专题。